1. n. 
A class of borehole seismic measurements used for correlation with surface seismic data, for obtaining images of higher resolution than surface seismic images and for looking ahead of the drill bit; also called a VSP. Purely defined, VSP refers to measurements made in a vertical wellbore using geophones inside the wellbore and a source at the surface near the well. In the more general context, VSPs vary in the well configuration, the number and location of sources and geophones, and how they are deployed. Most VSPs use a surface seismic source, which is commonly a vibrator on land and an air gun in offshore or marine environments. VSPs include the zero-offset VSP, offset VSP, walkaway VSP, walk-above VSP, salt-proximity VSP, shear-wave VSP, and drill-noise or seismic-while-drilling VSP. A VSP is a much more detailed survey than a check-shot survey because the geophones are more closely spaced, typically on the order of 25 m [82 ft], whereas a check-shot survey might include measurements of intervals hundreds of meters apart. Also, a VSP uses the reflected energy contained in the recorded trace at each receiver position as well as the first direct path from source to receiver. The check-shot survey uses only the direct path traveltime. In addition to tying well data to seismic data, the vertical seismic profile also enables converting seismic data to zero-phase data and distinguishing primary reflections from multiples.
Alternate Form: vertical seismic profile
See: air gun, apparent anisotropy, borehole seismic data, check-shot survey, depth conversion, drill-noise vertical seismic profile, first break, multiple reflection, one-way time, primary reflection, salt-proximity vertical seismic profile, seismic-while-drilling vertical seismic profile, Stoneley wave, walk-above vertical seismic profile (VSP), walkaway vertical seismic profile, zero-offset vertical seismic profile