**1. n. [Geophysics]**

The process of decomposing a function of time or space into a sum (or integral) of sinusoidal functions (sines or cosines) with specific amplitudes and phases.

**See:**
Fourier transform,
frequency domain,
Gibbs' phenomenon,
sinusoid,
time domain

**2. n. [Reservoir Characterization]**

A mathematical algorithm designed by geometrician and physicist Baron J.B.J. Fourier to determine the frequency distribution within a wave pattern as a series of sine waves. Fourier analysis is also used to study any series of repeated signals or patterns. This analysis is sometimes used to study patterns in images such as thin sections, and in geostatistics and log analysis.